Route Implementation for Electric Buses

Background

Increasing prices for fossil fuels, the desire to become independent of the turbulences in international commodity markets and the requirement of protecting the local environment as well as the global climate are motivations for many transport operators to consider the introduction of fully electric city buses.

For many transport companies, electromobility is no unknown territory. Trams and even trolleybuses have been used in cities for more than 100 years. If the passenger figures are not sufficient, however, trams and trolleybuses cannot be operated efficiently and their introduction is obstructed by high infrastructure investment costs. In addition, many cities have reservations about the introduction of catenaries in view of the cityscape. In total, the interest in electric buses with energy storages for catenary-free operation has increased significantly.

Initial Situation

Due to the current developments in electric energy storages and power electronics, concepts for fully electric city buses have become feasible – even if they did not seem realizable a few years ago. Except for a small number of niche applications, fully electric buses have hitherto been based on a linear energy supply via catenaries. By now, concepts can be realized which include the regular recharging of energy storages on vehicles without the need for catenaries. The feasibility of such approaches depends on the characteristics of the route or the network, including

  • the length of the route,
  • the cycle time and organization of breaks,
  • the elevation profile,
  • passenger load as well as
  • travel speed.

Range of Services

The Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation and Infrastructure Systems offers consulting services for the introduction of fully electric city buses – according to the principle of distinguishing the possible from the impossible and identifying future prospects.

Based on comprehensive knowledge and experience in electric storage and propulsion technologies, bus routes and route networks are analyzed with regard to the possibility of a stepwise introduction of battery buses. Concepts for linear energy supply via catenaries and inductive charging are also taken into consideration. If possible, the concept for a stepwise introduction of electric city buses is designed for a short-term or middle-term time frame. The analyses are unbiased to the result. It is also possible to conclude that a route is currently or in the near future not suitable for the introduction of electric city buses. The risks related to the introduction of a certain technology are always clearly communicated. Issues relating to energy efficiency, environmental impact and costs are also included in the services.

In a first step, the route characteristics relevant for the propulsion concept are recorded. If the initial rough analysis shows that a route or a network could be suitable for the operation of battery-powered city buses, a detailed calculation of the energy and performance balances is carried out using efficient simulation tools. For vehicle modeling in general, and the modeling of the drivetrain in particular, configurations can be made regardless of the manufacturer or manufacturer-specific, depending on the customer's requirements.

The result includes statements on the suitability of a route for battery-powered buses as well as information regarding

  • the necessary size of the energy storage,
  • the performance requirements and
  • possible changes in the operations process.

In a third step, the requirements for the electric energy storage and the drivetrain are compared to technologies which are either already available or will become realizable in the near future.

The results provide decision support for transport operators and can be used for the definition of specifications.

Implementation Concept

The introduction concept for fully electric city buses includes statements on the gradual procurement and the entry into service as well as information on

  • workshop equipment,
  • the training of workshop staff,
  • the training of drivers and
  • regulations and safety risks.

References

Introduction Concepts for Electric Buses

Concept for the introduction of 1,000 electric buses in the city of Delhi; 2018 – ongoing; commissioned by: DIMTS – Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Ltd.; contact: Mr. Nishnikant Gupta (phone: +91/11/43090100); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses on selected bus routes in Nordhausen; 2018 – ongoing; commissioned by: Verkehrsbetriebe Nordhausen GmbH; contact: Mr. Thorsten Schwarz (phone: +49/3631/639242); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Sonneberg; 2018 – ongoing; commissioned by: OVG Sonneberg; contact: Mr. Schneider (phone: +49/3675/75290); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network (rigid and articulated buses) of the BVG in Berlin; 2017 – ongoing; commissioned by: BVG; contact: Dr. Daniel Hesse (phone: +49/30/25629500); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Düsseldorf; 2017 – ongoing; commissioned by: Rheinbahn AG; contact: Mr. Jörg Klaeden (phone: +49/211/5821155); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Leipzig; 2017 – 2018; commissioned by: Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH (LVB); contact: Mr. Andreas Böttcher (phone: +49/341/4922307); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in parts of the bus network of the city of Cologne; 2017 – ongoing; commissioned by: Kölner Verkehrs-Betriebe AG; contact: Mr. Peter Hasler (phone: +49/221/5474230); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Freiburg; 2016 – 2017; commissioned by: Freiburger Verkehrs AG; contact: Mr. Sascha Zorn (phone: +49/761/4511351); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Göttingen; 2016 – 2017; commissioned by: Göttinger Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH; contact: Mr. Thomas Zimmermann (phone: +49/551/38444830); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Support of the introduction of battery buses on five MetroBus lines in the city of Osnabrück; 2016; commissioned by: Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG; contact: Mr. Christian Elixmann (phone: +49/541/ 20022360); schedule-based energy balances for the determination of parameters of battery buses and charging infrastructure; elaboration of the specification sheets (contract documents) for the battery buses and the charging infrastructure

ELIPTIC – coordinated by Free Hanseatic City of Bremen; 2015 – 2017; commissioned by: European Commission; contact (Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen): Mr. Michael Glotz-Richter (phone: +49/421/3616703); Use case Leipzig: recommendations for the regular operation of electric 12 m buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses on one bus line in the city of Jena; 2015 – 2016; commissioned by: Jenaer Nahverkehr GmbH; contact: Mr. Falk Hamann (phone: +49 3641/414127); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses and assessment of the results of the analysis with regard to a synergetic use of tram substations for recharging infrastructure

BEEDel – assessment of the operation of electric buses with decentralized charging infrastructure at the example of the Hamburger Hochbahn; 2015 – 2016; in cooperation with Hamburger Hochbahn AG; commissioned by: Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI); contact: NOW GmbH (phone: +49/30/311611600); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Assessment of the electrification of BRT route B1 in the city of Guangzhou; 2015; commissioned by: Baiyun Power Group; contact: Mr. Yi Wang (phone: +86/20/86608696); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of route-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Aachen; 2015; commissioned by: Aachen municipal administration; contact: Mr. Kai Mohnen (phone: +49/241/4326138); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

E-MoBus – preliminary study – assessment of the operation of electric buses in the Bavarian Forest; 2014 – 2015; in cooperation with VCDB GmbH; commissioned by: Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI); contact: NOW GmbH (phone: +49/30/311611600); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of schedule-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the Munich district; 2014 – 2015; commissioned by: MVV GmbH; contact: Mr. Detlev Metzner (Tel.: +49/89/21033253); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of route-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in five medium-sized cities in Thuringia; 2014 – 2015; commissioned by: Thüringer Ministerium für Bau, Landesentwicklung und Verkehr (Thuringian Ministry of Construction, Regional Development and Traffic); contact: Mr. Jörg Kallenbach (phone: +49/361/3791510); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses in the cities of Altenburg, Eisenach, Mühlhausen, Suhl and Weimar

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in five larger cities in Thuringia; 2013 – 2014; commissioned by: Thüringer Ministerium für Bau, Landesentwicklung und Verkehr (Thuringian Ministry of Construction, Regional Development and Traffic); contact: Mr. Jörg Kallenbach (phone: +49/361/3791510); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses in the cities of Erfurt, Gera, Gotha, Jena, Nordhausen

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Bonn; 2013 – 2014; commissioned by: SWB-Verkehr GmbH; contact: Mrs. Barbara Nick (phone: +49/228/7112292); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of route-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in Niestetal; 2012; commissioned by: Verkehrs-verbund Nordhessen; contact: Mr. Olaf Rohde (phone: +49/561/7094928); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of a route-based energy balance

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis (district); 2012; commis-sioned by: KVG Main-Kinzig mbH; contact: Mr. Volker Rahm (phone: +49/6181/9192120); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of a route-based energy balance

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the city of Jena; 2012; commissioned by: Jenaer Nahverkehr GmbH; contact: Mr. Falk Hamann (phone: +49/3641/414127); recommendations for the regular operation of electric buses with the help of a route-based energy balance

 

Implementation Concepts for Hybrid Trolleybuses

ELIPTIC – coordinated by Free Hanseatic City of Bremen; 2015 – ongoing; commissioned by: European Commission; contact (Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen): Mr. Michael Glotz-Richter (Tel.: +49/421/3616703); Use case Eberswalde: simulation and assessment of three articulated bus routes in Eberswalde regarding hybrid trolley bus operation

E-Bus Skorpion – hybrid trolley buses on articulated bus routes in Leipzig – projekt of the Schau-fenster Elektromobilität Bayern – Sachsen (Showcase electromobility Bavaria – Saxony); 2013 – 2016; commissioned by: Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI); contact: project management organization VDI/VDE (phone: +49 30/ 3100780); assessment of the articulated bus lines in the Leipzig urban area regarding their suitability for the operation of hybrid trollex buses on the basis of detailed energy balance calculations

ElektroHybridBus Esslingen; 2013 – 2016; commissioned by: municipal transport service Esslingen am Neckar; contact: Mr. Harald Boog (phone: +49 711/ 35123223); simulation and assessment of articulated buses regarding hybrid trolley bus operation

Vehicle simulation of an electric bus on LVB route 70; 2012; commissioned by: Verkehrs-Consult Leipzig (VCL) GmbH; contact: Mr. Wolfgang Schütze (phone: +49 341/ 9642429); simulation and assessment of articulated bus route 70 in Leipzig regarding hybrid trolley bus operation

Use of storage systems in the trolley buses of the city of Eberswalde; 2011; commissioned by: Barnimer Busgesellschaft mbH; contact: Mr. Frank Wruck (phone: +49 3334/ 52250); technical layout of storage units for a trolley bus with an energy storage system for improved energy recuperation and partially catenary-free operation; accompaniment of measuring campaigns

 

Planning and Dimensioning of Charging Infrastructure and Workshops for Electric Buses in Depots, Establishment of Training Plans

Concept for the introduction of 1,000 electric buses in the city of Delhi; 2018 – ongoing; commissioned by: DIMTS – Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Ltd.; contact: Mr. Nishnikant Gupta (phone: +91/11/43090100); recommendations for charging infrastructure and charging concept

Electric buses for the city of Freiburg; 2017 – 2018; commissioned by: Freiburger Verkehrs AG; contact: Mr. Michael Flösch (phone: +49/761/4511246); dimensioning and planning of the charging infrastructure, description of workshop equipment

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Göttingen; 2016 – 2017; commissioned by: Göttinger Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH; contact: Mr. Thomas Zimmermann (phone: +49/551/38444830); dimensioning and planning of the charging infrastructure, description of workshop equipment, training plan

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Leipzig; 2017 – 2018; commissioned by: Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH (LVB); contact: Mr. Andreas Böttcher (phone: +49/341/4922307); dimensioning and planning of the charging infrastructure, description of workshop equipment, training plan

Concept for the introduction of electric buses in the entire bus network of the city of Aachen; 2015; commissioned by: Aachen municipal administration; contact: Mr. Kai Mohnen (phone: +49/241/4326138); description of workshop equipment, training plan

 

Accompaniment of the Procurement of Buses and Infrastructure

Concept for the introduction of 1,000 electric buses in the city of Delhi; 2018 – ongoing; commissioned by: DIMTS – Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System Ltd.; contact: Mr. Nishnikant Gupta (phone: +91/11/43090100); vehicle specifications

Electric buses for the city of Freiburg; 2017 – 2018; commissioned by: Freiburger Verkehrs AG; contact: Mr. Michael Flösch (phone: +49/761/4511246); development of specification sheets for vehicles and infrastructure

Plug-in hybrid buses for the city of Göttingen; 2017; commissioned by: Göttinger VerkehrsbetriebeGmbH; contact: Mr. Thomas zimmermann (phone: +49/551/38444830); development of specification sheets for vehicles and infrastructure, evaluation of offers

Electric buses on five MetroBus lines in the city of Osnabrück; 2016 Support of the introduction of battery buses on five MetroBus lines in the city of Osnabrück; 2016 – 2018; commissioned by: Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG; contact: Mr. Christian Elixmann (phone: +49/541/ 20022360); development of specification sheets (contract documents) for vehicles and charging infrastructure, eveluation of offers, participation in bidder interviews

Electric buses for the city of Cologne; 2015; commissioned by: Kölner Verkehrs-Betriebe GmbH; contact: Mr. Peter Hasler (phone: +49/221/5474230); contribution to specification sheets for vehicles and charging infrastructure

Electric buses for the city of Bonn; 2014; commissioned by: SWB-Verkehr GmbH; contact: Ms. Barbara Nick (phone: +49/228/7112292); development of specification sheets for vehicles and charging infrastructure, evaluation of offers, participation in bidder interviews

 

Accompaniment of the Introduction of Electric Buses – Other Projects

ZeEUS – coordinated by UITP; 2013 – ongoing; commissioned by: European Commission; contact (UITP): Mr. Umberto Guida (phone: +32/2/7880124); professional accompaniment of the introduction of electric buses in the city of Bonn in collaboration with SWB-Verkehr GmbH

Professional accompaniment of electric bus line 100/200 in the city of Hannover; 2016 – 2017; commissioned by: üstra Hannoversche Verkehrsbetriebe AG; contact: Mr. Jens Ernsting (phone: +49/511/16682685); establishment of energy consumption on different route segments; assessment of comparable routes with regard to the introduction of electric buses 

SEB – EDDA-Bus; 2012 – 2015; commissioned by: Federal Ministry of Education and Research; contact: project management organization VDI/VDE; Mr. Simon Verleger (phone: +49/30/310078381); development of core technologies of fast-charging battery buses in collaboration with industry, conversion of a serial hybrid bus to a battery bus, testing of the battery bus in the bus network of the Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG

 

Introduction Concepts for Fuel Cell Buses

Concept for the introduction of fuel cell buses for the entire bus network of the city of Düsseldorf; 2017; commissioned by: Rheinbahn AG; contact: Mr. Jörg Klaeden (phone: +49/211/5821155); recommendations for the regular operation of fuel cell buses with the help of route-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of fuel cell buses for the entire bus network of the city of Leipzig; 2017; commissioned by: LVB GmbH; contact: Mr. Andreas Böttcher (phone: +49/341/4922307); recommendations for the regular operation of fuel cell buses with the help of route-based energy balances

Concept for the introduction of fuel cell buses for the entire bus network of the city of Göttingen; 2016 – 2017; commissioned by: Göttinger Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH; contact: Mr. Thomas Zimmermann (phone: +49/551/38444830); recommendations for the regular operation of fuel cell buses with the help of route-based energy balances